Safeguarding (Child Protection) Policy
This policy applies to the Saturday courses run by Art History Link-Up. The policy applies to all activities undertaken by students.
Art History Link-Up is committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people, along with their protection, and expects all staff and volunteers to share this commitment. Everyone who comes into contact with children has a role to protect them from neglect and abuse – this document is an essential read for all adults employed by Art History Link-Up (AHLU). AHLU is committed to providing a safe and secure environment for students, staff and visitors and has measures to deliver this, which include (but not exhaustively): designated safeguarding leads; careful governance; safer recruitment procedures; processes for disclosure and referral; codes of conduct for staff and pupils; first aid and medical plans; and training. This policy sets out these and other areas in detail.
1. POLICY AIMS
The purpose of this policy is to:
- Describe what should be done if anyone employed by or connected to AHLU has a concern about the safety and welfare of a pupil who attends
- Identify the particular attention that should be paid to those pupils who fall into a category that might be deemed “vulnerable”
- Clarify how pupils will be kept safe through AHLU activities
- Identify the names of responsible persons and explain the purpose of their roles
- Set out expectations in respect of training
- Set out expectations regarding record keeping
- Outline how the implementation of this policy will be monitored .
This Policy and its related procedures has been prepared in compliance with and having regard to the Education Acts; the Children Act 2004; the Education (Independent School Standards) Regulation 2014;“Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015”; “Keeping Children Safe in Education 2016”; “Protecting children from radicalisation: the prevent duty 2015”; Ofsted guidance; and procedures produced by the London Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB). Staff are required to confirm that they have read Part 1 of ‘Keeping Children Safe in Education’
and that mechanisms are in place to assist staff to understand and discharge their role and responsibilities as set out in Part one. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/keeping-children-safe-in-education–2
Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children involves:
- protecting children from maltreatment (including abuse and neglect);
- preventing impairment of children’s health or development;
- ensuring children grow up in safety with effective care; and
- taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes.
4. ABUSE AND NEGLECT – types and signs
4.1 There are various forms of abuse and neglect:
- Abuse: a form of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm. They may be abused by an adult or adults or another child or children.
- Physical abuse: a form of abuse which may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.
- Emotional abuse: the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond a child’s developmental capability as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, although it may occur alone.
- Sexual abuse: involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
- Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE): CSE is a type of sexual abuse in which children are sexually exploited for money, power or status. Children or young people may be tricked into believing they are in a loving, consensual relationship. They might be invited to parties and given drugs and alcohol. They may also be groomed online. Some indicators of children being sexually exploited are: going missing for periods of time or regularly coming home late; regularly missing school or education or not taking part in education; appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions; associating with other young people involved in exploitation; having older boyfriends or girlfriends; suffering from sexually transmitted infections; mood swings or changes in emotional wellbeing; drug and alcohol misuse and displaying inappropriate sexualised behaviour. A child under the age of 13 is not legally capable of consenting to sex (it is statutory rape) or any other type of sexual touching. Sexual activity with a child under 16 is also an offence. It is an offence for a person to have a sexual relationship with a 16 or 17 year old if that person holds a position of trust or authority in relation to the young person. Non consensual sex is rape whatever the age of the victim. If the victim is incapacitated through drink or drugs, or the victim or his or her family has been subject to violence or the threat of it, they cannot be considered to have given true consent and therefore offences may have been committed. Child sexual exploitation is therefore potentially a child protection issue for all children under the age of 18.
- Where it comes to our notice that a child under the age of 13 is, or may be, sexually active, whether or not they are a pupil of this school, this will result in an immediate referral to Children’s Services. In the case of a young person between the ages of 13 and 16, an individual risk assessment will be conducted in accordance with the London Child Protection Procedures. This will determine how and when information will be shared with parents and the investigating agencies.
- Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): FGM is a procedure where the female genital organs are injured or changed and there is no medical reason for this. It is frequently a very traumatic and violent act for the victim and can cause harm in many ways. The practice can cause severe pain and there may be immediate and/or long-term health consequences, including mental health problems, difficulties in childbirth, causing danger to the child and mother; and/or death.
- FGM is a deeply embedded social norm, practised by families for a variety of complex reasons. It is often thought to be essential for a girl to become a proper woman, and to be marriageable. The practice is not required by any religion.
- FGM is an unacceptable practice for which there is no justification. It is child abuse and a form of violence against women and girls.
- FGM is prevalent in 30 countries. These are concentrated in countries around the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East like Iraq and Yemen, it has also been documented in communities in Colombia, Iran, Israel, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, The Occupied Palestinian Territories, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. It has also been identified in parts of Europe, North America and Australia.
- FGM is illegal in the UK. It is estimated that approximately 60,000 girls aged 0-14 were born in England and Wales to mothers who had undergone FGM and approximately 103,000 women aged 15-49 and approximately 24,000 women aged 50 and over who have migrated to England and Wales are living with the consequences of FGM. In addition, approximately 10,000 girls aged under 15 who have migrated to England and Wales are likely to have undergone FGM.
- We note a new duty that was introduced on 31 October 2015 that requires teachers, which includes qualified teachers or persons who are employed or engaged to carry out teaching work in schools and other institutions to report ‘known’ cases of FGM in girls aged under 18 to the police. The duty applies to any teacher who is employed or engaged to carry out ‘teaching work’, whether or not they have qualified teacher status, in maintained schools, academies, free schools, independent schools, non-maintained special schools, sixth form colleges, 16-19 academies, relevant youth accommodation or children’s homes in England. The duty does not apply in relation to suspected cases – it is limited to ‘known’ cases’ (i.e. those which are visually identified or disclosed to a professional by the victim). The duty does not apply in cases where the woman is over 18 at the time of the disclosure/discovery of FGM (even if she was under 18 when the FGM was carried out). Further information on this duty can be found in the document “Mandatory Reporting of Female Genital Mutilation – procedural information”.
- Neglect: the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to: provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment); protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger; ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
4.2 All staff should be aware of the signs of abuse and neglect so that they can identify children who may be in need of help or protection.
4.3 As well as obvious non-accidental injuries, injuries which are not consistent with the explanation given and incidents reported by the child or others, the following signs may be significant in the light of other concerns:
- Physical harm: bruising; scarring; bandages/plasters; rubbing part of the body; cigarette burns; abstains from physical activities and resists using the changing room at school.
- Psychological abuse/harm: Apathy; withdrawal from social contact; loss of enthusiasm/energy; seeming to be preoccupied; tearful; misses school or is frequently late.
- Neglect: socially withdrawn; untidy/unkempt; poor time-keeping; infrequent mention of parents/family life; possibly slow to develop emotionally; overly self-reliant.
- Sexual abuse: Delayed or no learning progress, inappropriate sexual behaviour, low self-esteem, unease or unusual behaviour with adults, sexualised drawings, self-injury and distinct changes in behaviour.
- Child sexual exploitation: Going missing for periods of time or regularly coming home late; regularly missing school or education or not taking part in education; appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions; associating with other young people involved in exploitation; having older girlfriends or boyfriends; suffering from sexually transmitted infections; mood swings or changes in emotional wellbeing; drug and alcohol misuse and displaying inappropriate sexualised behaviour. It is important that these factors should not be seen in isolation but considered within the overall context.
5. PREVENTING RADICALISATION – PREVENT
5.1 The Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 places a duty on schools to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism (the ‘Prevent Duty’). Young people can be exposed to extremist influences or prejudiced views (in particular via the internet and other social media) and schools can help to protect children from them. AHLU can support this work.
- Communicates and promotes the importance of the Prevent duty to staff
- Provides training to enable staff: (a) to recognise the engagement, intent and capability factors which indicate that a person may be vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism; (b) to challenge extremist ideas which can be used to legitimise terrorism; and (c) to know when and how to make a referral to the relevant agencies.
- Builds pupils’ resilience to radicalisation by: (a) promoting their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development; (b) by promoting democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those with different faiths; and (c) helping pupils to acquire the knowledge, skills and understanding that they need to play a full and active part in society.
- Provides a broad curriculum and ensures that pupils are offered a balanced presentation of opposing views in relation to political issues.
- Ensures that visiting speakers are suitable and that they are appropriately supervised
- Assesses the risk of its pupils being drawn into terrorism, including support for extremist ideas that are part of terrorist ideology.
- Works in partnership with the police, local authorities and other agencies involved with the implementation of the Prevent Strategy.
5.3 Channel is a programme which focuses on providing support at an early stage to people who are identified as being vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism that uses existing collaboration between local authorities, the police, statutory partners (such as the education sector, social services, children’s and youth services and offender management services) and the local community.
5.4 We will refer children at risk of harm as a result of involvement or potential involvement in extremist activity to the appropriate authority, in consultation with the child’s school.
6. THE ROLE OF AHLU AND ITS STAFF IN SAFEGUARDING CHILDREN
6.1 Everyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding and welfare of children (including physical abuse, emotional abuse and sexual abuse) and neglect.
6.3 Safeguarding pupils is the responsibility of the all those involved in AHLU.
6.4 Staff are advised of the need to be alert for safeguarding issues that may arise in relation to staff pupil relationships and the potential for bullying and peer abuse.
7. AHLU APPROACH
7.1 AHLU is committed to providing a safe and secure environment for pupils, staff and visitors and promoting a climate where pupils and adults will feel confident about sharing any concerns which they may have about their or another’s safety or well-being.
7.2 AHLU works in partnership with parents, guardians or carers to secure the best outcomes for its pupils.
7.3 We provide guidance and training to staff regarding safeguarding matters and require them to comply with the Staff Code of Conduct.
7.4 We communicate as clearly as possible about the aims of AHLU.
7.5 We involve staff and pupils in the review of this policy and in the development of codes of conduct and behaviour policies and communicate these to parents
7.6 We liaise with agencies in the statutory, voluntary and community sectors that are active in supporting families.
7.7 Where a pupil needs additional support from one or more agencies, we will contact the pupil’s school and assist them and any agencies involved).
7.8 We are alert to the needs of parents/carers who do not have English as their first language.
8. DESIGNATED SAFEGUARDING LEADS
8.1 AHLU has a Trustee in charge of Safeguarding. Their names and contact details is set out on the cover page of this this Policy (which is updated annually).
8.2 The Trustee:
- ensures this policy is known and used appropriately;
- ensures that all staff are aware of this policy, have read all necessary documentation. At the beginning of each academic year all staff will have to ensure that they have read the relevant documents;
- acts as a source of support, advice and expertise to staff on matters of safeguarding;
- liaises with pupil’s school to highlight any non-urgent concerns which may require investigation or follow up at a later date;
- provides a termly report to the Safeguarding Trustee, outlining details of any safeguarding issues that have arisen during the term and the outcome of any cases identified. These reports will respect all issues of confidentiality and will not therefore identify any person(s) by name.
- can refer cases of suspected abuse to Children’s Services and other external agencies (including the Disclosure & Barring Service and the Police), where appropriate;
- will monitor absence patterns of children and will judge if act is required under the missing child guidance (see section 13).
- Will log any accidents or injuries that occur during any sessions
9. RECRUITMENT (Staff, Volunteers and Contractors)
10.1 AHLU is committed to principles of safer recruitment and has adopted procedures and processes (including its recruitment policy and safeguarding checks protocols) that are intended to help deter, reject and/or identify people who might abuse children.
10.2 The recruitment policy and safeguarding checks protocols are available to staff in the staff handbook.
10.3 We have regard to DfE’s statutory guidance for schools and charities about the employment of staff disqualified from childcare “Disqualification under the Childcare Act 2006”, which also contains information about ‘disqualification by association’.
10. STAFF DUTY TO REPORT CONCERNS
All staff are instructed that if they have any concerns about a child (including concerns regarding possible peer abuse) they must report the matter straight away to the DSL or direct to Children Services (see the Appendix). If a child is in immediate danger or is at risk of harm, a referral will be made to children’s social care and/or the police immediately. Anyone can make a referral. Where referrals are not made by the designated safeguarding lead, the designated safeguarding lead will be informed, as soon as possible, that a referral has been made.
11. MISSING CHILD
11.1 A pupil going missing from an educational setting is a potential indicator of abuse and neglect. Prolonged or repeated absences, or particular patterns of absence (with no satisfactory explanation) are treated by the AHLU as a potential safeguarding issue and action is taken accordingly.
12. VULNERABLE PUPILS
12.1 Particular vigilance will be exercised in respect of pupils who are subject to a Child Protection Plan and any incidents or concerns involving these pupils will be reported immediately to the allocated Social Worker (and confirmed in writing; copied to Schools Safeguarding Coordinator). If the pupil in question is a Looked After Child, this will also be brought to the notice of the Designated Person with responsibility for children in public care.
12.2 We acknowledge that children with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities can face additional safeguarding challenges. We are aware that additional barriers can exist when recognising abuse and neglect in this group of children. This can include assumptions that indicators of possible abuse such as behaviour, mood and injury relate to the child’s disability without further exploration; children with SEN and disabilities can be disproportionally impacted by things like bullying- without outwardly showing any signs; and communication barriers and difficulties in overcoming these barriers.
12.3 If a child discloses that they have witnessed domestic abuse or it is suspected that they may be living in a household which is affected by family violence, this will be referred to the Designated Safeguarding Lead as a safeguarding issue.
12.4 AHLU also acknowledges the additional need for support and protection of children who are vulnerable by virtue of homelessness, refugee/asylum seeker status, the effects of substance abuse within the family, those who are young carers, pupils who are excluded from school and pupils where English is an additional language.
12.5 We will always ascertain the views and feelings of all children. We acknowledge that children who are affected by abuse or neglect may demonstrate their needs and distress through their words, actions, behaviour, demeanour, school work or other children.
12.6 AHLU has a strong commitment to an anti-bullying policy and will consider all coercive acts and peer on peer abuse within a Child Protection context. 12.7 If a pupil discloses that they have witnessed domestic violence and is therefore at risk or it is suspected that they may be living in a household which is affected by family violence, this will be referred to the DSL as a safeguarding issue.
13. CHILDREN’S SERVICES REFERRALS
13.1 Any person who has concerns regarding a child may make a referral to Children’s Services (including any parent, pupil or member of staff).
13.2 When an individual concern/incident is brought to the notice of the Safeguarding Officer and the DSL and Trustee in charge of Safeguarding, s/he will decide whether or not this should be reported to Children’s Services as a safeguarding issue. It is important to note however that anybody can make a referral to Children’s Services. There must be an immediate referral to Children’s Services whenever a child has suffered or is likely to suffer significant harm.
13.3 In circumstances where a child has an unexplained or suspicious injury that requires urgent medical attention, the referral process should not delay the administration of first aid or emergency medical assistance.
13.4 If a pupil is thought to be at immediate risk (e.g. because of parental violence, intoxication, substance abuse, mental illness or threats to remove the child during the school day) urgent Police intervention will be requested. Please note that in emergency situations where immediate intervention is required where a child may need to be removed and taken to a ‘place of safety’ and only the police have the authority to do so. Social workers or others in children’s services need to go through court process to remove a child. Children’s services can be called for advice (see 15.5).
13.5 In the case of abuse by one or more pupils against another pupil, there should be a referral to Children’s Services where there is reasonable cause to suspect that a pupil is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm. In such cases, all the children involved (whether perpetrator or victim) should be treated as at risk.
14. NOTIFYING PARENTS/GUARDIANS OF INJURY
14.1 In situations where pupils sustain injury or are otherwise affected by an accident or incident whilst they are the responsibility of AHLU, parents will be notified of this as soon as possible.
15. PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
Any physical restraint used will comply with DfE guidance. In the exceptional circumstances where it becomes necessary for staff physically to restrain a pupil for their own protection or others’ safety, this will be appropriately recorded and reported to the DSL and parents.
Where a child sustains a physical injury or is distressed as a result of reported chastisement, or alleges that they have been chastised by the use of an implement or substance, this will immediately be reported for investigation to the appropriate local authority.
17. FIRST AID AND MEDICAL PLANS
17.1 Except in cases of emergency, first aid will only be administered by qualified First Aiders.
17.2 All first aid treatment will be recorded and, where significant, will be shared with parents/carers at the earliest opportunity.
17.3 If it is necessary for the child to remove clothing for first aid treatment, there will, wherever possible, be another adult present.
17.4 If a child needs help with toileting, nappy changing or washing after soiling themselves, another adult should be present or within earshot.
17.5 All first aid treatment and non-routine changing or personal care will be recorded and shared with parents/carers at the earliest opportunity.
18. ALLEGATIONS AGAINST STAFF (including Volunteers)
18.1 AHLU takes seriously all cases that involve allegations against staff. 18.2 When handling any such cases, AHLU follows the guidance given by the DfE in Part Four of “Keeping Children Safe in Education”.
18.3 Where it is alleged that a member of staff (including a Trustee, a volunteer or the Safeguarding Officer) has:
- Behaved in a way that has harmed a child or may have harmed a child;
- Possibly committed a criminal offence against or related to a child; or
- Behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates that he/she would pose a risk of harm if they work regularly or closely with children AHLU will immediately seek advice from the LADO. -Where a crime may have been committed or serious harm has been suffered, the matter will be reported to the police. AHLU will not undertake its own investigations without prior consultation with the LADO.
18.4 Temporary and visiting staff will be subject to the same procedures in relation to safeguarding complaints and allegations, as permanent staff.
18.5 It is a legal duty to make a report to the DBS, within one month of their leaving AHLU, concerning any person (whether employed, contracted, a volunteer or pupil) who has harmed, or poses a risk of harm to a child and who has been removed from working (paid or unpaid) with children, or would have been removed had he or she not left earlier.
18.6 Staff who are formally disciplined for the mistreatment of pupils (or who resign before disciplinary action can be completed) will be notified to Children’s Services and the DfE.
18.7 If an allegation against a member of staff is substantiated, AHLU would work with the LADO to determine whether any improvement should be made to the safeguarding procedures or practices.
19.1 Brief written notes will be kept of all incidents and child protection or child in need concerns relating to individual pupils. These notes are significant especially if the incident or the concern does not lead to a referral to other agencies. This information may be shared with the pupil’s schools and other agencies as appropriate. AHLU will take into account the views and wishes of the child who is the subject of the concern but staff will be alert to the dangers of colluding with dangerous “secrets”.
19.2 All Child Protection records are kept securely by the Designated Safeguarding Leads. They may only be accessed by the Safeguarding Officers, Designated Safeguarding Leads, the Trustee in charge of Safeguarding.
All complaints arising from the operation of this policy will be considered by the Trustees, with reference to education services as necessary.
21. WHISTLEBLOWING POLICY
Staff should be aware of the that there is a whistle-blowing procedure and should share immediately any disclosure or concern that relates to a member of staff with the Safeguarding Officer or one of the Designated Safeguarding Leads if the Safeguarding Officer is not available and nothing should be said to the colleague involved. It should be shared with the DSL or Trustee in charge of Safeguarding if it relates to the Safeguarding Officer.
22. REVIEW OF THIS POLICY
22.1 The Safeguarding Policy is reviewed each year and updated as necessary.
22.2 Safeguarding is on the agenda for Trustees meetings each year. It is the duty of the Safeguarding Trustee to provide all necessary information and to make a report at such meetings.
23. PROSPECTIVE PARENTS AWARENESS OF SAFEGUARDING
This policy is made available to prospective parents/guardians on request. The Trustees have formally adopted this policy and review its contents annually or sooner if any legislative or regulatory changes*
24.1 Any parent or other person/organisation engaged by the schemes to work in a voluntary capacity with children will be subject to all reasonable vetting procedures and Criminal Records Checks.
24.2 Under no circumstances a volunteer in respect of whom no checks have been obtained will be left unsupervised or allowed to work in regulated activity.
24.3 Volunteers who on an unsupervised basis teach or look after children regularly, or provide personal care on a one-off basis in our school are deemed to be in regulated activity. We will obtain an enhanced DBS certificate (which will include barred list information) for all volunteers who are new to working in regulated activity. Existing volunteers in regulated activity do not have to be re-checked if they have already had a DBS check (which includes barred list information). However, we may conduct a repeat DBS check (which will include barred list information) on any such volunteer should we have any concerns.
24.4 The law has removed supervised volunteers from regulated activity. There is no legal requirement to obtain DBS certificate for volunteers who are not in regulated activity and who are supervised regularly and on ongoing day to day basis by a person who is in regulated activity, but an enhanced DBS check without a barred list check may be requested following a risk assessment. Further information on checks on volunteers can be found in Part three of the DfE guidance “Keeping children safe in education”. Volunteers will be subject to the same code of conduct as paid employees of the schemes.
25. STAFF CODE OF CONDUCT
25.1 All staff (paid and voluntary) are expected to adhere to a code of conduct in respect of their contact with children and their families. The tutors will be expected to behave in the same way that teachers would in any school. The Teachers’ Standards 2012 state that all teachers, including headteachers, should safeguard children’s wellbeing and maintain public trust in the teaching profession as part of their professional duties. Children will be treated with respect and dignity and no punishment, detention, restraint, sanctions or rewards are allowed outside of those detailed in the scheme’s code of conduct. Whilst it would be unrealistic and undesirable to preclude all physical contact between adults and children, staff are expected to exercise caution and avoid placing themselves in a position where their actions might be open to criticism or misinterpretation. Where incidents occur which might otherwise be misconstrued, or in the exceptional circumstances where it becomes necessary to physically restrain a pupil for their own protection or others’ safety, this will be appropriately recorded and reported to the Safeguarding Officer and parents. Any physical restraint used will comply with DfE guidance “Use of reasonable force in schools”.
25.2 For their own safety and protection, staff should exercise caution in situations where they are alone with pupils. Other than in formal teaching situations; the door to the room in which the 1:1 coaching, counselling or meeting is taking place should be left open. Where this is not practicable because of the need for confidentiality, another member of staff will be asked to maintain a presence nearby and a record will be kept of the circumstances of the meeting.
25.3 The staff should also be alert to the possible risks that might arise from social contact with pupils outside of the school. Home visits to pupils or private tuition of pupils, telephone calls by pupils to the homes of staff members should only occur in exceptional circumstances and with the prior knowledge and approval of the Trustees. Any unplanned contact of this nature or suspected infatuations or “crushes” will be reported to the Trustees.